Arts and crafts are one of the most important characteristics of all the countries of the world. Each country is characterized by its mastery of a particular craft. The majority of the arts and crafts differ in different countries. It is also similar to many arts and crafts, although their origin varies. Or a specific craft, but each country has its own taste in publishing its arts, even if they are similar to others. One of the most important of these is the art of composition with mosaics.
Mosaic: Mosaic is the art and craft of the manufacture of cubes of a precise size and used in the decoration of terracotta and terracotta walls and decorating. This is done by fixing them on soft surfaces and designing various shapes and colors with different colors. It is possible to use certain materials in the industry such as Glass, metal, shells, stones where granules made of these materials are technically distributed to be influential and express valuable artistic values
. The rhythm of color and line are the most important factors in the manufacture of mosaic art, through which the formation of the plastic unit or land built of small cubes and colorful multi-materials and elements and these elements are geometric shapes ornate
. The mosaic industry is based on two parts: the decorative surface, which consists of the connecting bar, the space between the architectural borders of the frame, the footnote or the decorative unit, the field, which is the decorative area that surrounds the link, the architectural structure and the link, and the field is covered with paintings of Kalmala area and finally The paintings are the decorative unit placed on the field and the second part is the holder and is divided into two types, namely the first carrier, which is the basic carrier used for the moment of discovery of the mosaic during the exploration process. The second carrier is the holder used to protect the mosaics after uprooting it from its location His pregnant
. The clay is a soft material that can be formed in its wet condition and when it is placed on the fire it becomes solid. The colored stones and the marble rocks are also used in their manufacture. They are used on the basic drawing and the shape of the piece. These stones are accumulations of different natural materials
Steps of the Works of Mosaic Panels:
First, the image or project to be executed with mosaics shall be drawn on a large piece of paper, and this should be in reverse
Second, each of the color spaces of the drawing shall be divided into sections of small size and then paved
Thirdly, the colored cubes shall be installed on the basis of the drawing to be executed. When doing this work, reduce some pieces to suit the drawing and then use adhesives to fix the cubes and pieces to be attached.
Fourthly, the drawing shall be placed in the framework of a factory of iron or a factory of wood provided that the position of the paper is at the bottom
Fifth: The mixture of cement and fine sand shall be brought and processed with water and poured over the mosaic pieces in the frame and then left to dry.
Sixth, the frame is turned upside down, and then a sponge and a bowl of cold water are brought in. The sponge is wetted and passed on the paper on which the painting is drawn. This is also to be discarded, and it is removed to obtain the colored mosaic painting. on the wall
Stages of Mosaic Development:
. The mosaics of the prehistoric era are attributed to a temple called the Warka temple where the mosaic was made of pens and nails with colorful circular heads, which were planted in the walls to form works and decorative forms
. The development of the mosaics then reached the Persians, where they quoted this art and used it in some works in the palace of Dara al-Persian. This art spread to the highest level of accuracy, perfection and quality at the end of the 3rd century BC
. In the fourth and fifth centuries, the oldest mosaics were discovered in Greece. Roman mosaics emerged. The oldest mosaic model was found in the city of Bombay in the walls and foundations of the gardens. It spread widely throughout the Roman country, including North Africa , France, the Mediterranean basin and Jordan . This spread was in the first and third centuries AD
. The spread of mosaics then reached the Byzantine state, especially in the Levant, Rome and other dependent territories
. The use of this art expanded and was widely used until the establishment and arrival of the Islamic State where Muslims used this art to decorate mosques and decorate palaces
. This art began to spread more and more and spread over the ages to become one of the most important decorative arts currently used as many people consider it a civilization and not an art in view of its prosperity and aesthetic image of the high-end of the era has become widespread use in homes, Palaces, swimming pools and also used in frescoes
click HERE to watch a video how Mosaic paintings made